THE BIBLE IS A COMPLEX BOOK WITH HIDDEN MEANING. Understanding Hidden Bible Truths Are Difficult If You Are Not Enlightened By The Spirit Of God. Many people have different approaches to interpreting the Bible, but do they interpret Scripture correctly?
Please do not forget the last three words of Exodus 34:28. (AKJV) And he was there with the Lord forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.
Firstly, that the Ten Commandments were not written down by Moses on the tablets (Exodus 34:1). Nevertheless, this does not mean that Moses did not write them down also, as the verse you quote (Ex. 34:28) suggests that he did.
These two chapters include some of what is written in the real Ten Commandments. In terms of disregarding these two chapters as the Ten Commandments as outlined in Exodus 20, one would have to say that they are not the same. Exodus 20 is also slightly different to Deuteronomy 5, but for a different reason.
If you want to understand the Bible, you have to approach what you read prayerfully and humbly. This means in order to understand the Bible, you have to have a relationship with God and hear His voice. God's voice goes out into all the world, but only those who are tuned into the gospel frequency can hear it.
An indication that there is more in these two chapters than meets the eye is obvious when we learn Bezalel from the tribe of Judah; was filled with the Spirit of God, and given the knowledge, intelligence, ability of craftsmanship and inspiration to teach Oholiab from the tribe of Dan. These two men were responsible for the craftsmanship required in making the tabernacle. This tells us that God guided the making of the Tabernacle. The Tabernacle is where God dwells with man. There is much to learn from understanding the Tabernacle.
These two chapters are filled with typology that are relevant for Christians today. They are not the Ten Commandments. Although, these two chapters are telling us that the Ten Commandments are relevant to God dwelling with man.
Besides mentioning the Ten Commandments, we have references to the feasts, and these are important. We find the Passover, Unleavened Bread, First Fruits, Pentecost, Tabernacles mentioned. A direct reference is missing to the feast of Trumpets and the day of Atonement. These two days are implied by the Passover and the call for the people to assemble.
Israel broke the first covenant by making a god in the form of a calf. God renewed the covenant and this is important because what we see here is a reference to the Gospel message: the renewed covenant or, if you like, the new covenant of Immanuel (God with us).
The renewed covenant goes along these lines:
I will give you your inheritance (5th commandment)
You shall not have any other Gods for I am a jealous God (1st & 2nd commandments)
You shall not make for yourselves any images (2nd commandment)
You shall be holy and keep the feast of unleavened bread (3rd commandment)
The first born are mine and they shall be redeemed (doorway to life)
You shall enter my Sabbath (4th commandment)
You shall appear before me at first fruits (justification)
You shall appear before me at weeks (sanctification)
You shall appear before me at the ingathering (glorification)
Moses assembled the congregation (feast of trumpets)
This is all made possible by the Passover (overcomers by the blood)
You shall not slaughter a mother with the lamb (woman/manchild)
Moses skin shone with the glory of the Lord (rewards in glory)
No one shall work on the Sabbath (perpetual rest)
No one will light a fire (Lord himself will be the fire and light)
Each one works according to their generosity of spirit (much: more given)
The Lord God will dwell with man (Immanuel)
Your offering to me shall be freewill (come to me)
Those whom I shall choose shall I anoint ( few are chosen)
There shall be two who teach (testimony of the two tablets, Heaven and Earth shall pass away, but not one dot nor one iota of this Law shall pass away until all is accomplished.)
The above is a cursory overview of the two chapters highlighting some key points as they are presented in order. Nevertheless, we can see the plan that God has for His people in respect to the New Covenant that Jesus spoke about.