There is much dispute about the Pharaoh who lived at the time of Moses. Those who claim the Bible is a myth do so because they are intellectually lazy, deceived or just plain deceptive, as they have no evidence. When presented with evidence they will appeal to some pundit who disputes it, but who is really on their side and is just like them. Thus we find in Wiki:
- Mainstream history and archaeology now consider the Exodus never to have happened, and the story to be an entirely fictional narrative put together between the 8th and 5th centuries BCE. Christian and Jewish literalists do not accept this.—rational wiki
Bryant G. Wood PhD writes:
- “the date of the Biblical Exodus-Conquest is clear. 1 Kings 6:1 and 1 Chronicles 6:33–37 converge on a date of 1446 BC for the exodus and the Jubilees data and Judges 11:26 independently converge on a date of 1406 BC for the beginning of the conquest. The 1406 BC date is further confirmed by archaeological data from Jericho, Ai (Kh. el-Maqatir) and Hazor.”
Symbolic prophecy is indicative, if not exact to the very minute of the day. Bible prophecy is contingent upon freewill and therefore cannot be exact to the very second, even if historically accurate. Evidence of this is the fact that nobody today can buy of sell manufactured goods without the number of the mark of the beast—666 (in the cashless society to come this will include all goods).
It appears that the Pharaoh at the time of the Exodus was Maatkare Hatshepsut (1479–1458), a co-regent with her son Menkheperre Thutmose III who ruled until 1425 BCE . The first born of Thutmose III, Amenemhat, apparently died from an unknown cause. There is a strong belief that this occurred at the time of the death of the firstborn.
Because history has a habit being written by victors, discovering who exactly were the pharaohs that were killed is difficult at the time of the Exodus. There could have been a firstborn child of Pharaoh who died, and then another of the sons of Pharaoh could have drowned in the Red Sea at the Gulf of Aqaba crossing, Neweiba—a site that was discovered by literally following the details of the route written in the Book of Exodus. The sons of Pharaoh were often called co-regents, even if they did not have real power; a common practice among the ancients, which appears to have been a form of apprenticeship.
To answer your question as to who the Pharaoh was at the time of the Exodus, I would be inclined to say it was Thutmose III, but whether he was a co-regent with his mother or a son, I cannot be certain.
Steve Rudd provides his outline below.
The Ten Commandments Were Written Then Words Written By God Himself